|ThaiARC SpeechStyles Regional Folktales Poetry||
Text from: Thomas J. Hudak (1990)
The Indigenization of Pali Meters in Thai Poetry.
Monographs in International Studies.
Southeast Asia Series No. 87. Athens: Ohio University.
(with author's permission)
All classical Thai poetry, from its earliest appearance during the Sukhothai period (1240s-1345/50) to the present, can be classified into the following types: |
Of these, khloong, raay, and kl@@n are indigenous forms, while kaap (Sanskrit kavya ) and chan (Sanskrit chandas; Pali chando) are borrowed ones.
Discussions of these verse types appear in versification textbooks known as chanthalak (Pali chando prosody; lakkhana characteristics) and in literary anthologies. The chanthalak textbooks forms a part of a general language series which includes
Historically, the verse types have appeared in the following order:
Each of these forms has a particular pattern or (khana) that consists of several components. The number and arrangement of the components depend upon the verse type. Essential to these components are the (phayaang) or syllables, each verse type having a specific and require number. In older texts on versification, the word (kham) syllable, word is used rather than phayaang. Because Thai words are predominantly monosyllabic, in many cases a syllable in a poem is a word; in cases of polysyllabic words, kham refers to the syllable of the word rather than to the entire word. By using phayaang rather than kham,modern texts have eliminated possible confusion regarding the number of syllables or words in each verse type.
The components of the khana? as described by all chanthalak and literary anthologies include
The major verse types along with their significant features include the following.
Please follow the link of each verse type for more information and audio samples.